Fish and fish products
Fish and fish products are consumed as food
all over the world. With other seafoods, it provides the world's
prime source of high-quality protein: 14% to 16% of the animal
protein consumed worldwide. Over one billion people rely on
fish as their primary source of animal protein.
Fish and other aquatic organisms are also
processed into various food and non-food products.
Fish products and Preservation Methods
Curing (food preservation)
Curing refers to various food preservation
and flavoring processes, especially of meat or fish, by the
addition of a combination of salt, sugar, nitrates or nitrite.
Many curing processes also involve smoking.
Salt-cured meat or salted meat, for example
bacon and kippered herring, is meat or fish preserved or cured
Dried and salted cod
Dried and salted cod, usually called salt
cod, is cod preserved by salting, drying, or both.
Smoked fish are fish that have been cured
Stockfish is unsalted fish, especially cod,
dried by sun and wind on wooden racks on the foreshore called
flakes, or in special drying houses. The drying of food is
the world's oldest known preservation method, and dried fish
has a storage life of several years.
Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues
of oily fish. It is recommended for a healthy diet because
it contains the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors to eicosanoids
that reduce inflammation throughout the body.
Processed fish products
Surimi refers to a Japanese food product intended to mimic
the meat of lobster, crab, and other shellfish. It is typically
made from white-fleshed fish (such as pollock or hake) that
has been pulverized to a paste and attains a rubbery texture
Fish glue is made by boiling the skin, bones and swim bladders
of fish. Fish glue has long been valued for its use in all
manner of products from illuminated manuscripts to the Mongolian
Fish oil is recommended for a healthy diet because it contains
the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors to eicosanoids that
reduce inflammation throughout the body.
Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from
the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish
Fish hydrolysate is ground up fish carcasses. After the usable
portions are removed for human consumption, the remaining
fish body – guts, bones, cartilage, scales, meat, etc
– are put into water and ground up.
Fish meal is made from both whole fish and the bones and offal
from processed fish. It is a brown powder or cake obtained
by rendering pressing the whole fish or fish trimmings to
remove the fish oil. It used as a high-protein supplement
in aquaculture feed.
Fish sauce is a condiment that is derived from fish that have
been allowed to ferment. It is an essential ingredient in
many curries and sauces.
Isinglass is a substance obtained from the swim bladders of
fish (especially sturgeon), it is used for the clarification
of wine and beer.
Tatami iwashi is a Japanese processed food product made from
baby sardines laid out and dried while entwined in a single
layer to form a large mat-like sheet.
Other processed products
Pearls, mother-of-pearl, and abalone are valued for their
lustre. Traditional methods of pearl hunting are now virtually
Sea horse, star fish, sea urchin and sea cucumber are used
in traditional Chinese medicine.
The Sea snails Murex brandaris and Murex trunculus are used
to make the pigment Tyrian purple.
Somesepia pigment is made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish.
Kelp is a major source of iodine, can be used as fertilizer,
and kelp ash can be used in soap and glass production.
Fish may also be collected live for research,
observation, or for the aquarium trade.